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Literature Citations

Gnanamani, M.K.; Jacobs, G.; Pendyala, V.R.R.; Sparks, D.E.; Hopps, S.D.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. "Effect of phosphorous addition on reducibility and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis activity of cobalt supported on silica," 11th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium, June 5-9, Tromso, 2016.



Gnanamani, M.K.; Jacobs, G.; Pendyala, V.R.R.; Graham, U.M.; Hopps, S.D.; Thomas, G.A.; Shafer, W.D.; Sparks, D.E.; Xiao, q.; Hu, Y.; Davis, B.H. "Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: anchoring of cobalt particles in phosphorus modified cobalt/silica catalysts," Applied Catalysis A: General, 523, 146-158, 2016.



Gnanamani, M.K.; Hamdeh, H.H.; Jacobs, G.; Qian, D.; Liu, F.; Hopps, S.D.; Thomas, G.A.; Shafer, W.D.; Xiao, Q.; Hu, Y.; Davis, B.H. "Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Effect of Cu, Mn and Zn addition on activity and product selectivity of cobalt ferrite," RSC Advances, 6, 62356-62367, 2016.



Zheng, L., Landon, J., Matin, N.S., Thomas, G.A., Liu, K. "Corrosion mitigation via a pH stabilization method in monoethanolamine-based solutions for post-combustion CO2 capture," Corrosion Science, 106, 281-292, 2016.



Zheng, L., Matin, N.S., Landon, J., Thomas, G.A., Liu, K. "CO2 loading-dependent corrosion of carbon steel and formation of corrosion products in anoxic 30 wt.% monoethanolamine-based solutions," Corrosion Science, 102, 44 - 54, 2016.



Gnanamani, M.K.; Jacobs, G.; Keogh, R.A.; Shafer, W.D.; Sparks, D.e.; Hopps, S.D.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. "Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: effect of pretreatment conditions of cobalt on activity and selectivity for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide," Applied Catalysis A: General, 499, 39-46, 2015.



Ma, W.; Jacobs, G.; Thomas, G.a.; Shafer, W.D.; Sparks, D.E.; Hamdeh, H.H.; Davis, B.H. "Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: effects of hydrohalic acids in syngas on a precipitated iron catalyst," ACS Catalysis, 5, 3124-3136, 2015.



Ma, W.; Jacobs, G.; Sparks, D.E.; Pendyala, V.R.R.; Hopps, S.D.; Thomas, G.A.; Hamdeh, H.H.; MacLennan, A.; Hu, Y.; Davis, B.H. "Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: effect of ammonia in syngas on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance of a precipitated iron catalyst," Journal of Catalysis, 326, 149-160, 2015.



Wilcox, J., Wang, B., Rupp, E., Taggart, R., Hsu-Kim, H., Oliveira, M.L.S., Cutruneo, C.M.N.L., Taffarel, S., Silva, L.F.O., Hopps, S.D., Thomas, G.A., Hower, J.C. "Observations and Assessment of Fly Ashes from High-Sulfur Bituminous Coals and Blends of High-Sulfur Bituminous and Subbituminous Coals: Environmental Processes Recorded at the Macro- and Nanometer Scale
," Energy and Fuels, 29, 7168-7177, 2015.



Gnanamani, M.K.; Jacobs, G.; Shafer, W.D.; Sparks, D.E.; Hopps, S.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. "Low temperature water-gas shift reaction over alkali metal promoted cobalt carbide catalysts," Topics in Catalysis, 57, 612-618, 2014.



Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Hopps, S.G., "Trends in coal utilization and coal-combustion product production in Kentucky: Results of the 2012 survey of power plants," Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, 6, 35-41, 2014.



Jermwongratanachai, T.; Jacobs, G.; Shafer, W.d.; Pendyala, V.R.R.; Ma, W.; Gnanamani, M.K.; Hopps, S.; Thomas, G.A.; Kitiyanan, B.; Khalid, S.; Davis, B.H. "Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: TPR and XANES analysis of the impact of simulated regeneration cycles on the reducibility of Co/alumina catalysts with different promoters (Pt, Ru, Re, Ag, Au, Rh, Ir)," Catalysis Today, 228, 15-21, 2014.



Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A.; Hopps, S.D.; Grider, M. "Chemistry of coal and coal combustion products from Kentucky power plants: Results from the 2007 sampling, with emphasis on selenium," Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, 1, 50-62, 2010. Full Text



Evin, H.N.; Jacobs, G.; Ruiz-Martinez, J.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. "Low
temperature water-gas shift: alkali doping to facilitate formate C-H bond cleaving over Pt/ceria catalysts - an optimization problem
," Catalysis Letter, 120, 166-178, 2008. Full Text



Evin, H.N.; Jacobs, G.; Ruiz-Martinez, J.; Graham, U.M.; Dozier, A.; Thomas, G.; Davis, B.H. "Low temperature water-gas shift/methanol steam reforming: alkali doping to facilitate the scission of formate and methoxy C-H bonds over Pt/ceria catalyst," Catalysis Letters, 122, 9-19, 2008. Full Text



Jacobs, G.; Evin, H.; Graham, U.M.; Ruiz-Martinez, R.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. "Alkali doping of Pt/ceria weakens C-H
bonds of intermediates during low
temperature water-gas shift and methanol
steam reforming," 14th International Congress on Catalysis, July 13-18, Seoul, Korea, 2008.



Sarkar, A.; Dozier, A.K.; Graham, U.M.; Thomas, G.; O'Brien, R.J.; Davis, B.H. "Precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst: Effect of carbidization on the morphology of iron oxyhydroxide nanoneedles," Applied Catalysis A: General, 326, 55-64, 2007. Full Text



Suárez-Ruiz, I.; Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A. "Hg and Se Capture and Fly Ash Carbons from Combustion of Complex Pulverized Feed Blends Mainly of Anthracitic Coal Rank in Spanish Power Plants," Energy & Fuels, 21, 59-70, 2007. Full Text



Hower, J.C.; Sakulpitakphon, T.; Trimble, A.S.; Thomas, G.A.; Schram, W.H. "Major and Minor Element Distribution in Fly Ash from a Coal-fired Utility Boiler in Kentucky," Energy Sources, 28, 79-95, 2006. Full Text



Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A. "Distribution of selenium, arsenic, and mercury in ESP fly ashes," 232nd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Sept. 10-14, San Francisco, CA, 2006.



Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A. "Distribution of selenium, arsenic, and mercury in ESP fly ashes," 2006 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Oct. 22-25, Philadelphia, PA, Abstracts with Program, 38, 2006.



Suárez-Ruiz, I.; Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A. "Petrology and chemistry of fly ashes derived from the combustion of complex coal blends in Spanish power plants," International Coal Ash Technology Conference, May 15-17, Birmingham, England, 2006.



Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L.; Anderson, C; Thomas, G.A.; Sakulpitakphon, T.; Mardon, S.M.; Clark, W.L. "Characteristics of coal combustion products (CCP's) from Kentucky power plants, with emphasis on mercury content," Fuel
, 84 (11) 1338-1350, 2005. Full Text



Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Mardon, S.M.; Trimble, A.S. "Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant," Applied Geochemistry, 20, 1309-1319, 2005.



Jacobs, G.; Chenu,E.; Patterson, P.M.; Williams, L.; Sparks, D.; Thomas, G.; Davis, B.H. "Water-gas shift: comparative screening of metal promoters for metal/ceria systems and role of the metal," Applied Catalysis A: General, 258, 203-214, 2004. Full Text



Jacobs, G.; Patterson, P.M.; Williams, L.; Chenu, E.; Sparks, D.; Thomas, G.; Davis, B.H. "Water-gas shift: in situ spectroscopic studies of noble metal promoted ceria catalysts for CO removal in fuel cell reformers and mechanistic implications," Applied Catalysis A: General, 262, 177-187, 2004. Full Text



Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.R.; Anderson, C.; Thomas, G.; Sakulpitakphon, G.; Mardon, S.; Clark, L. "Characteristics of CCP's from Kentucky Power Plants, with Emphasis on Mercury Content," 2003 International Ash Utilization Symposium, Oct. 20-22, Lexington, KY, 2003.



Jacobs, G.; Williams, L.; Graham, U.; Thomas, G. A.; Sparks, D. E.; Davis, B. H. "Low-temperature water-gas shift: In-situ DRIFTS-Reaction study of ceria surface area on the evolution of formates on Pt/CeO2 fuel processing catalysts for fuel cell applications," Applied Catalysis A: General, 252, 107-118, 2003. Full Text



Sakulpitakphon, T.; Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S.; Thomas, G.A.; Schram, W.H. "Arsenic and Mercury Partitioning in Fly Ash at a Kentucky Power Plant," Energy & Fuels, 17, 1028-1033, 2003. Full Text



Hower, J. C.; Schram, W. H.; Thomas, G. A. "Forensic petrology and geochemistry: tracking the source of a coal slurry spill, Lee County, Virginia," International Journal of Coal Geology, 44(2) 101-108, 2000. Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Hower, J.C.; Sakulpitakphon, T.; Trimble, A.S.; Schram, W.H.; Thomas, G.A. "Studies of mercury distribution in fly ash at a Kentucky power plant," 17th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Sept. 11-14, Pittsburgh, PA, Proceedings, CD, Paper 19a-2, 2000.



Hower, J.C.; Sakulpitakphon, T.; Trimble, A.S.; Schram, W.H.; Thomas, G.A.; Ward, C.R. "Tracking trace elements from the mine to the power plant: Studies of mercury distribution in fly ash at a Kentucky coal-fired power plant," 112th Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Nov. 9-18, Reno, NV, Abstracts with Programs, 32, A37, 2000.



Sakulpitakphon, T.; Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S.; Schram, W.H.; Thomas, G.A. "Mercury capture by fly ash: Study of the combustion of a high-mercury coal at a utility boiler," Energy & Fuels, 14(3) 727-733, 2000. Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Graham, U. M.; Thomas, G. A, "Chemically active aerogel-fly ash composites for mercury clean-up," 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, Oct. 18-20, Lexington, KY, Proceedings, 159-166, 1999.



Graham, U.M.; Thomas, G. "Chemically active aerogels for hot gas clean-up in a IGCC process," ACS, Division of Fuel Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, Preprints, 44(3) 706-710, 1999.



Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Palmer, J. "Impact of the conversion to low-NOx combustion on ash characteristics in a utility boiler burning Western US coal," Fuel Processing Technology, 61(3) 175-195, 1999. Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A. "Changes in the quality of coal delivered to Kentucky power plants, 1978 to 1997: responses to Clean Air Act directives," International Journal of Coal Geology, 41(1-2) 125-155, 1999. Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Hower, J. C.; Robl, T. L.; Thomas, G. A. "Changes in the quality of coal combustion by-products produced by Kentucky power plants, 1978 to 1997: consequences of Clean Air Act directives," Fuel, 78(6) 701-712, 1999. Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Hower, J. C; Trerice, D. R.; Rathbone, R. F.; Thomas, G. A.; Hobbs, A. D. "Short-term variations in fly ash petrology and mineralogy: Examples from a western Pennsylvania power station," Thirteenth International Symposium on Use and Management of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs), American Coal Ash Association, Jan. 11-15, Orlando, FL, Proceedings, 1, 28-1 - 28-10, 1999. (TR-111829)



Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Trimble, A.S. "Impact of conversion to low-NOx combustion on fly ash quality: investigation of a unit burning high-sulfur coal," 1999 International Ash Utilization Symposium, Oct. 18-20, Lexington, KY, Proceedings, 195-201, 1999.



Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A.; Haeberlin, B.O.; Trimble, A.S. "Case study of the conversion of tangential- and wall-fired units to low-NOx combustion: impact on fly ash quality," Waste Management, 17(4) 219-229, 1998. Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A. "Air rules cause search for options: Kentucky's response to mandates studied," American Association of Petroleum Geologists Explorer, 19(11) 54, 1998.



Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A. "Changes in the quality of coal combustion by-products produced by Kentucky power plants, 1978 to 1997: Consequences of Clean Air Act directives," Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Society for Organic Petrology (TSOP) - TSOP Halifax '98, July 26-30, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, Abstracts and Program, 3-4, 1998.



Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Wong, A.S.; Robertson, J.D.; Haeberlin, B.O.; Thomas, G.A.; Schram, W.H. "Influence of flue-gas desulfurization systems on coal combustion byproduct quality at Kentucky power stations burning high-sulfur coal," Waste Management, 17(8) 523-533, 1997 (1998) Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Liaw, S.-J.; Raje, A.P.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. "Second row transition metal sulfides for the hydrotreatment of coal derived naphtha. III. Removal of individual nitrogen compounds," Applied Catalysis A, 150(2) 343-364, 1997. Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S. "Petrography and chemistry of high-carbon fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky," Energy Sources, 18(1) 107-118, 1996.



Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J. D.; Thomas, G.A.; Wong, A.S.; Schram, W.H.; Graham, U.M.; Rathone, R.F.; Robl, T.L. "Characterization of fly ash from Kentucky power plants," Fuel, 75(4) 403-11, 1996. Full Text - Protected by copyright - Limited to staff use only



Taulbee, D. N.; Schram, W. H.; Thomas, G. A.; Rathbone, R. F.; Robl, T. L. "Laboratory-lysimeter studies of dry FGD wastes from tests of the coolside technology," Thirteenth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh Coal Conference, University of Pittsburgh, Proceedings, 1, 705-710, 1996.



Hower, J.C.; Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J. D.; Thomas, G.A.; Wild, G.D. "Petrography and chemistry of fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky," Eleventh Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Proceedings, 2, 1160-5, 1994.



Liaw, S.-J.; Keogh, R.A.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. "Catalytic Hydrotreatment of Coal-Derived Naphtha Using Commercial Catalysts," Energy & Fuels, 8(3) 581-7, 1994.



Xu, L.; Keogh, R. A.; Huang, C.-S.; Spicer, R. L.; Sparks, D. E.; Lambert, S.; Thomas, G. A.; Davis, B. A. "Catalytic hydrotreatment of coal-derived naphtha," Fuel Science & Technology International, 12(10) 1355-76, 1994.



Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Graham, U.M.; Thomas, G.A.; Wong, A.S.; Schram, W.H. "Characterization of Kentucky coal-combustion byproducts: Compositional variations based on sulfur content of feed coal," Journal of Coal Quality, 12(4) 150-5, 1993.



Hower, J. C.; Robertson, J. D.; Graham, U. M.; Thomas, G. A.; Wong, A. S. "Characterization of Kentucky coal-combustion byproducts: Compositional variations based on sulfur content of feed coal," Tenth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Proceedings, 1022-5, 1993.



Keogh, R. A.; Sparks, D. E.; Thomas, G. A. "Chloridation and activity of platinum/alumina catalysts," ACS, Division of Fuel Chemistry, Preprints, 37(4) 1895-902, 1992.



Hower, J. C.; Riley, J. T.; Thomas, G. A.; Griswold, T. B. "Chlorine in Kentucky coals," Journal of Coal Quality, 10(4) 152-8, 1991.



Xu, L.; Keogh, R. A.; Huang, C. S.; Spicer, R. L.; Sparks, D. E.; Lambert, S.; Thomas, G. A.; Davis, B. H. "Catalytic hydrotreatment of coal-derived naphtha," ACS, Division of Fuel Chemistry, Preprints, 36(4) 1909-14, 1991.



Robl, T. L.; Barron, L. S.; Schram, W.; Thomas, G. A. "Final summary of data from the Hope Creek field leaching study," 1988 Eastern Oil Shale Symposium, Lexington, KY, Univ. Ky., Inst. Min. Miner. Res. Proceedings, 115-21, 1989. (IMMR88/101)